Russian Science and Technology
Russian science and technology are famous due to many achievements. On the top of the list there are: the invention of radio by A. Popov, the creation of the Periodical table of elements by D. Mendeleev, formulation of the principals of the interplanetary space flights on multistage rockets by K. Tsiolkovskiy, achievements of Russian space program lead by S. Korolev that include first unmanned space flight of "Sputnik" and first manned space flight of Yu. Gagarin, invention of laser by N. Basov and Yu. Prokhorov as well and many other discoveries.
There are around 4000 organizations in Russia involved in research and development with almost one million personnel. Half of those people are doing scientific research. It is coordinated by Ministry of industry, science and technologies, where strategy and basic priorities of research and development are being formulated.
Fundamental scientific research is concentrated in Russian Academy of Sciences, which now includes hundreds of institutes specializing in all major scientific disciplines such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, Earth sciences etc.
The applied science and technology is mainly done in Institutions and Design Bureaus belonging to different Russian Ministers. They are involved in research and development in nuclear energy (Ministry of atomic energy), space exploration (Russian aviation and space agency), defense (Ministry of defense), telecommunications (Ministry of communications) and so on.